Birth of the modern Antisemitism in Europe. In contrast to earlier forms of especially Christian Anti-Judaism, it promoted a pseudo-scientific form of Anti-Semitism based on Nationalism, Racism and Social-Darwinism.
Germany lost the First World War
End of WWI. Germany lost the war. Proclamation of the Republic (end of Monarchy)
Protocols of the Elders of Zion
1919 was published the first German issue of “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion” The book was translated in many other languages during the 1920s and were the most widely spread anti-semitic script in 20th century. Key thesis presented in the book "the Jewish world conspiracy" used by National-Socialists as well. (During national socialism the “Protocols” were compulsory at school)
Treaty of Versailles with hard consequences for Germany. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations.
Foundation of the Nazi-Party
Foundation of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP) short in English: Nazi-Party.
Assassination of the Jewish German Minister
The Antisemitic, right-wing “Organisation Consul” assassinates the Jewish German Minister of the Exterior Walther Rathenau
After the failed so-called „Hitler-Putsch“, Hitler sent to prison for several months where he writes "Mein Kampf". After prison he reorganizes the Nazi-party and aims to gain power legally.
First edition of Hitler’s “Mein Kampf”. In this extremely Anti-Semitic book, Hitler maintains the supremacy of the Aryan race and argues in favor of a racial Anti-Semitism.
Elections in Germany
1928 Reichstag Elections in Germany: NSDAP gains 2,6 % of votes.
Young-Plan: last regulation of German reparations according to the Treaty of Versailles
New York Crash
Crash of the New York stock exchange and the beginning of the World Economy Crisis.
Elections in Germany
1930 Reichstag Elections in Germany: NSDAP gains 18,3 % of votes (a plus of 15,7% ! ) The party exploited the economic crisis; it presented itself as a young, dynamic party and it used national, anticommunist and anti-capitalist paroles. The party forwent Antisemitism in the campaign in order to gain more votes especially from the middle class strata. It worked out.
Jun-Jul 1932 : Lausanne Conference: indefinite postponement of reparations for Germany.
Elections in Germany
1932 Reichstag Elections in Germany: NSDAP gains 37,3 % of votes
Nazis take power
After the appointment of Adolf Hitler as chancellor and the coming to power of his National-Socialist Party, the racial Anti-Semitism becomes government program and state doctrine.
The Reichstag Fire Decree
The Reichstag Fire Decree (“Reichstagsbrandverordnung”) nullified many of the key civil liberties. Used to imprison anyone who was an opponent of the Nazis.
Hitler elected chancellor
In the election of 1933 Hitler was elected chancellor. Rearrangement of the country into dictatorship; the two most important laws have been passed
Dachau concentration camp
First concentration camp in Germany, KZ Dachau near Munich, is founded.
The Enabling Act
The “Enabling Act” (Ermächtigungsgesetz) gave the government (Hitler) the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
Boycott of Jewish enterprises
Boycott of Jewish shops, doctors and lawyers.
Non-Aryans out of Civil Service
The ”Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” ("Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums"): members of certain groups (Non-Aryans, that is especially Jews, public servants with special political views, that were not conform with the Nazis, especially Communists) are to be dismissed from public service. (First Anti-Semitic law in Germany since the emancipation of Jews in 1871). Source: Reichsgesetzblatt, No. 34 from 7 April 1933, p. 175 The paragraph (No.3) concerning the non-Aryans (Jews) is the so called “Aryans-Paragraph”. Under the pressure of the NSDAP, almost all organisations, unions and professional associations adopted the paragraph during 1933, thus excluding the Jews from almost all professional and societal areas/sectors.
Founding of the Secret State Police (Geheime Staatspolizei = Gestapo)
The night of the long knives
“The night of the long knives” (30.6-1.7.1933.) : Gestapo and the SS murder the leaders of the SA (Sturmabteilung; the Nazis' own paramilitary Brownshirts organization) and other opponents in their own party in order to secure Hitler’s absolute power. Most prominent victim: Ernst Röhm, the leader of the SA. This event is also called the “Röhm-Putsch”, as the Naszis spread rumors, that the SA was planning a putsch and had therefore to be eliminated.
Burning of books of Jewish writers
Burning of books of Jewish writers and of writers in opposition to NS-ideology, organised by student bodies first in Berlin, then in many other German university towns.
Pledge an oath to Hitler
"Law On The Allegiance of Civil Servants and Soldiers of the Armed Forces" Civil servants and the Wehrmacht pledge an oath in which they express their personal loyalty to Hitler.
The Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws: “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German honor“ (Gesetz zum Schutze des deutschen Blutes und der deutschen Ehre) and Reich Citizenship Law” (Reichsbürgergesetz) Source: Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I, No. 100 from 16. September 1935, p. 1146 à here maybe a short text, what was prohibited? “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German honor“: Marriages between Germans (in original always: “citizens/subjects of German or related blood”)and Jews are prohibited; Extramarital sex between Germans and Jews is prohibited; Jews are not allowed to employ female persons in their households under the age of 45; Jews are forbidden to fly the Reich or national flag or display Reich colours; They are allowed to show (only) Jewish colors; 1. Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Llaw from 14.11.1935 (Source: Reichsgesetzblatt Teil I, No. 125 from 14. November 1935, p. 1333f.)
Italy starts a war against Abyssinia
Italy starts a war against Abyssinia (today: Ethiopia) in Eastern Africa.
Anti-Comintern Pact between Nazi Germany and Japan.
Buchenwald concentration camp
The formation of the NS Concentration Camp Buchenwald begins; it is also start of the reorganisation of concentration camps in Germany
Olympic Games in Berlin
Hitler opens the Olympic Games in Germany
Benches only for Aryans
In Berlin first benches with the sign “only for Aryans” are placed.
Italy joins the Anti-Comintern Pact
Italy joins the Anti-Comintern Pact.
Antisemitic exhibition the Eternal Jew
The Reich’s propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels opens the Anti-Semitic Exhibition „The Eternal Jew“ in Munich (was shown later until the beginning of the war in Vienna, Berlin, Bremen, Dresden and Magdeburg with a total of 1.2 Million visitors; 1940. a movie with the same title was shown in the cinemas) Exhibition: the Eternal Jew (Der ewige Jude): Munich: 8. 11. 1937 - 31. 1. 1938, 412.300 visitors Vienna: 02.08. - 23.10.1938 - 350.000 visitors https://www.dhm.de/lemo/bestand/objekt/96003766 Berlin: 12.11.1938 - 13.01.1939 “only” 250.000 visitors (it was shown directly after the November-Pogroms) Bremen: 04.02. - 05.03.1939 Dresden: 24.03. - 23.04.1939 Magdeburg: 13.05. - 11.06.1939 - 80.000 visitors Exhibition: The Jew and France (Le Juif et la France) Paris: 05.09.1941 - 15.01.1942 Exhibition: The Jews (Židovi) Zagreb: 01.05. - 31.05.1942
Annexation of Austria
Annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany (“Anschluß Österreichs” = “joining of Austria”).
Formation of Mauthausen
Formation of the first concentration camp in Austria, Mauthausen, begins.
Munich Agreement: At the end of the conference among the major powers of Europe (without Soviet Union and the representation of Czechoslovakia) in Munich, Czechoslovakia is forced to cede the borderlands to Germany populated mostly by German speaking population (the so called “Sudetenland”) to Nazi Germany
November pogroms (“Reichskristallnacht”): Pogroms against the Jews throughout Nazi-Germany. Official Nazi-German sources speak of 91 dead and 7000 devastated Jewish shops. (Source: Kurt Pätzold: "Reichskristallnacht", in: Enzyklopädie des Nationalsozialismus, hrsg. von Wolfgang Benz, Hermann Graml und Hermann Weiß, 2. Aufl. München 1998 (1997), S. 679-680.)
With the Decree about an „atonement effort“ the German Jews are forced to pay one billion Reichsmark. First Decree in order to eliminate Jews from the German economic life. The Jews are prohibited to own retail shops as well as run their own craft business. Jews are prohibited to attend cinemas, theatres, concerts and other cultural events (Source: AdG, p. 3806; ADAP, Serie D, Bd. V, Nr. 649)
Jews prohibited to attend German schools
Jews are prohibited to attend German schools. They can only attend Jewish schools. Jewish students are prohibited to enter German universities.
Jews prohibited to drive cars
Driver’s licences by Jews are declared void.
Jews prohibitted to sell at markets
Jews are forbidden to sell at markets.
Annexation of the Czech lands
Nazi-Germany occupies and then annexes the rest of the Czech lands, after the proclamation of the Slovak Republic a day earlier
Stop illegal emigration of Jews
Himmler orders to stop "illegal emigration" of Jews in order to support legal emigration. Refugees and their helpers are to be sent to concentration camps.
Italy annexes Albania
Italy annexes Albania 07 - 08.04.1939
300.000 in German concentration camps
According to Gestapo-information there are already over 300.000 persons in German concentration camps.
Pact of Steel - Germany and italy
“Pact of Steel” between the German Reich and Italy
Eliminating Jews from economic life
Decree in order to eliminate Jews from economic life in the “Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia.”
Hitler-Stalin Pact: A Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Beginning of WWII
Germany attacks Poland and thus starts the Second World War and Hitler orders the Killing of sick persons in convalescent and nursing homes (“Aktion T4” or “Euthanasie” = involuntary euthanasia). The Nazis killed more than 70.000 disabled persons (among them more than 5.000 children) until the end of the war.
Jews are not allowed to leave homes after 20.00
Jews are not allowed to leave their homes after 20.00.
Jews are obliged to wear a yellow star in Poland
In Krakow Jews are obliged to wear a yellow star. Soon, this regulation is expanded to the whole occupied Poland.
Germany invades Denmark and Norway
German army invades Denmark and Norway without a declaration of war.
Established Ghetto in Lodz
The Germans establish a ghetto for Jews In Lodz (Litzmannstadt)
Auschwitz concentration camp established
The Germans establish a concentration camp in Auschwitz (Oswiezim) for polish political prisoners
German troops in Paris
German troops march in Paris.
French collaborationist government
Building of a French collaborationist government (Vichy) in July, that rules over app. 40% of the (southern) French territory. The rest, with the capital Paris, is under direct German occupation.
Aryanization of Jewish businesses
The Aryanization of Jewish businesses is to be completed by the end of the year.
Jews forbidden to possess property
In Germany Jews are forbidden to possess any kind of property.
Antisemitic movie Jude Süß
At the Venice film festival (Biennale) , the antisemitic movie "Süss the Jew" premiers.
Established Ghetto for the Jews in Warsaw
Building of a ghetto for the Jews in Warsaw.
Italy declares war to Greece
Italy declares war to Greece and starts an invasion from Albania.
Hungary joins the Tripartite pact
Hungary joins the Tripartite pact.
Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question
German chief ideologue Alfred Rosenberg opens the Institute for the research of the Jewish question "Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question" (“Institut für die Erforschung der Judenfrage” ) in Frankfurt
Hitler orders invasion of Yugoslavia
Hitler orders to invade and occupy Yugoslavia
Antisemitic laws in Romania
Antisemitic laws in Romania separate the Jews from the rest of the population.
Invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia
Invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia.
Independent State of Croatia
Proclamation of the “Independent State of Croatia” in which the Ustasha comes to power.
German racial laws expanded
The German racial laws (Nuremberg Laws) are extended to all the occupied territories in Eastern Europe
German troops invade Soviet union (start of the “Operation Barbarossa”)
Jassy (Iași) Pogrom
Jassy (Iași) Pogrom: 13.266 Jews are murdered mostly by the Iasi police after Romanian leader Ion Antonescu gave order to clean the town Iași of Jews.
Massacre in Lviv
SS Units murder in a massacre in Lviv (Ukraine) 7.000 persons
Massacre in Chisinau
Reinhard Heidrich receives an order to prepare the annihilation of the Jews in Western and Central Europe. And SS units kill 12.000 Jews in Chisinau (Kishinev)
The Atlantik Charta
Roosevelt and Churchill proclaim the “Atlantik Charta” that contains principles for a new order after the war.
Movie The eternal Jew
All cinemas in Netherlands are obligated to show the antisemitic movie “The eternal Jew”.
Kamenets Podolsk massacre
Kamenets Podolsk massacre: SS-units kill 23.500 Jews (14-16.000 Jewish refugees from Poland and Soviet Union expelled from Hungary to Soviet territories under German occupation and local Jews) (27/28. 8. 1941).
Jews of 6 years and older obliged to wear a yellow star
Identification of Jews of 6 years and older through a yellow star
Massacre in Babin Yar
SS troops kill 33.000 Jews in massacres in Babi Yar near Kiev.
Jews must follow orders immediately
All Jews that do not immediately follow an order are to be taken to concentration camps.
Odessa Massacre: Romanian troops kill 45.000-50.000 Jews and take the remaining ca. 35.000-40.000 to aghetto. German troops also participated in the killing (22-24. 10. 1941.).
Emigration forbidden for German Jews during the war
For the duration of the war it is forbidden for German Jews to emigrate.
Jews from the Old-Reich to be deported
From 01. to 04.11.1942: Order to deport 50.000 Jews from the “Old-Reich” (= Germany before 1938), Austria and Bohemia-Moravia to the East (Territories around Riga and Minsk). They departed in transports of 1.000 people from different cities in the Third Reich. (Source: IMT, PS-3921)
Jews working for not-important enterprises to be taken to the Eastern territories
Decision that Jews who do not work for enterprises that are important for the economy are going to be taken to the Eastern territories in the following months. The property of those Jews devolves to the German Reich.
Terezin concentration camp established
The Nazis establish a concentration camp in Terezin (Czech lands/Bohemia).
Expatriation and expropriation of Jews who are going to be deported
A decree allows in Germany the expatriation and expropriation of Jews who are going to be deported.
Trucks plant for gasification
Near Bydgoszcz (German: Blomberg; annexed polish territory) SS units start a planned murder of Jews by using trucks with gasification plants .
Pearl Harbour bombing and one day later: declarations of war by both, US and Japan
Sajmiste concentration camp established
German nazis form a concentration camp at Sajmiste (Judenlager Semlin) with aim to kill all Jews from the Serbian territories occupied by Germany.
Germany declares war to the USA
Germany declares war to the USA.
Jews forbidden to use public phones
Jews are forbidden to use public phones.
Wannsee-Conference: Representatives of the SS, the NSDAP and several ministries discuss and settle organisational questions concerning the murder of the European Jews. Thereby the high ranking personnel of the German state did not only learn about the plans for the extermination of the Jews but participated in it.
Novi Sad Raid
“Raid” in Novi Sad and Šajkaška. In this massacre that was masked as a raid, Hungarian forces killed 3.500 persons (of which 1.200 Jews) 21-23.01.1942.
Transports from France and Slovakia to Auschwitz-Birkenau
First big transports with Jews from France and Slovakia arrive in Auschwitz-Birkenau. In the time since its establishment, the concentration camp Auschwitz grew to receive much more prisoners than it was initially planned. After the Germans had in the course of the year 1941 decided to murder the European Jews, Heinrich Himmler decided that Auschwitz-Birkenau would be the central place for the mass murder. Therefore, the camp commander, Rudolf Höß, assigned the building of two gas chambers. From summer 1942 on, Auschwitz was the prime destination for transports of almost all European Jews. Approximately one million Jews were killed there.
The systematic murder of Polish Jews (Aktion Reinhardt) begins with the arrival of the first deportation trains to the extermination camp Belzec.
The systematic murder of Jews from whole Europe starts in Auschwitz
The systematic murder of Jews from whole Europe starts in Auschwitz with the arrival of first deportation trains.
Jews prohibited to use public transportations
In the Reich, the Jews are prohibited to use public transportations.
First mass gassing in Auschwitz-Birkenau
First documented mass gassing in Auschwitz-Birkenau of 1.500 Jews.
All Jews at Sajmiste camp killed by gas-van
By the end of May 1941, in just a couple of weeks 6.320 Jews from the concentration camp at Sajmiste are killed by a gas-van. "The Jewish question is solved in Serbia".
It is forbidden to send presents or money to deported persons
It is forbidden to send presents or money to deported persons.
Deportations from Amsterdam to Auschwitz-Birkenau
Start of the deportations from Amsterdam to Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Deportation from Paris
12.000 Jews are arrested in Paris in order to be deported to the east
Deportations of Jews from Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka
Beginning of deportations of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to Treblinka.
Deportation of Jews from the Independent State of Croatia
Deportation of ca. 5.000 Jews from the Independent State of Croatia to Auschwitz (13-27. 8.1942.).
Speaking of Thomas Mann
The famous German writer and Nobel-Prize winner, Thomas Mann, speaks on a BBC broadcast to the German population against the systematic mass murder of the Jews.
Start of deportations of Jews from German concentration camps
Start of deportations of Jews from German concentration camps to Auschwitz.
Jews from all camps in the Reich to be deported to Auschwitz and Lublin
Jews from all concentration camps situated in the Reich are to be deported to Auschwitz and Lublin
The Wehrmacht occupies the southern part of France
The Wehrmacht occupies the southern part of France (“Vichy-France”).
Casablanca Conference (14-21. 1. 1943) : The Allies decide to accept only the “unconditional surrender” by Germany.
Raids in Marseille
Big raids in Marseille: 40.000 Jews are arrested in order to deport them.
German VI. Army capitulates in Stalingrad
German VI. Army capitulates in Stalingrad
Deportations from Yugoslavia and Greece to Treblinka
7.144 Jews from Yugoslavia (Macedonia and South Serbia) and 4.800 Jews from Greek (Thrace ad Macedonia) territories that are occupied by Bulgaria are deported to Treblinka extermination camp. (18-23. 3. 1943)
Uprising in Warsaw ghetto
Beginning of the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto. It lasts until 16.5., when the whole ghetto is dissolved by the Nazis. 50.000 Jews died during the uprising.
Deportation from Zagreb to Auschwitz
Deportation of 2.000 Jews, mostly from Zagreb, to Auschwitz.
Deportation of children from the Netherlands
The Germans deport 1.250 Children under 16 from the Netherlands to the extermination camp Sobibor and murder them with gas.
Beginning of the Operation “Husky”
Beginning of the Operation “Husky”: American and British invasion of Sicily that marked a starting point for the Italian Campaign.
Italy declares war to Germany
Italy declares war to Germany.
Beginning of deportations Jews from Rome
Beginning of deportations of 1.000 Jews from Rome to the concentration camp Auschwitz
Teheran Conference (28. 11- 1. 12. 1943): Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill agree on fundamental basis of a European order after the war
Wehrmacht occupies Hungary
Wehrmacht occupies Hungary.
Introduced racial laws in Hungary
German occupiers install racial laws in Hungary in order to exclude Jews from the economy.
Hungarian Jews have to wear the yellow star
Hungarian Jews have to wear the yellow star.
The arrival of the first Jews from Hungary
The arrival of the first Jews from Hungary in the concentration Camp Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Beginning of the invasion of the Allies in Normandy
Beginning of the invasion of the Allies in Normandy.
The last transport of Jews from Hungary
Last transports of Jews from Hungary. From the end of April until the beginning of July 435.000 Jews (424.000 according to Yad vashem) from Hungary and territories occupied by Hungary (f.e. parts of Vojvodina) were deported to the extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, where most of them were killed immediately.
The Red Army liberates the extermination camp Majdanek
The Red Army liberates the extermination camp Majdanek near Lublin.
Killing 6,000 Sinti and Roma gas
In the course of three days, the Nazis killed 6.000 Sinti and Roma in Auschwitz-Birkenau with gas.
The beginning of deportations of 18.000 Jews from the concentration camp Terezin
The beginning of deportations of 18.000 Jews from the concentration camp Terezin to the extermination camp Auschwitz-Birkenau.
Jews prohibited to use “warming halls”
The jews are prohibited to use “warming halls” in the German Reich.
Heinrich Himmler orders
Heinrich Himmler orders to stop the gassing in Auschwitz-Birkenau, to cover the tracks and to deport the remaining inmates to the concentration camps Dachau and Bergen-Belsen.
The red army liberates Auschwitz
The red army liberates Auschwitz with the remaining 7.600 inmates.
Americans liberate the concentration camp Buchenwald
Americans liberate the concentration camp Buchenwald.
American troops liberate KZ Mauthausen
American troops liberate KZ Mauthausen.
Nazi Germany’s capitulation
Nazi Germany’s capitulation.
Formed International Military Tribunal (MVS)
Great Britain, Soviet Union, USA and France decide on the formation of the International Military Tribunal (IMT). For the first time in history a court is installed to punish violations of International Law. It was in charge of -Crimes against peace -War crimes -Crimes against Humanity
Jalta Conference (4. 11- 2. 1945)
In Nuremberg allies tried before the International Military Tribunal 21 senior Nazi leader and officials
In Nuremberg the Allies put on trial before the IMT 21 higher Nazi leaders and functionaries as well as six organizations classified as criminal. The IMT in Nürnberg convicts 12 war criminals to death, 3 to life sentences, 4 to diverse sentences and two are acquitted of the charges. (from 20. 11. 1945. to1. 10. 1946.)
Proclamation of the state Israel
Proclamation of the state Israel.
First Treblinka Trial in Frankfurt
First Treblinka Trial in Frankfurt. (1950-1951)
Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem
Eichmann Trial in Jerusalem. Eichmann was found guilty and sentenced to death (11. 4. - 15. 12. 1961.)
Begin of the first so-called “Auschwitz-trial
Begin of the first so-called “Auschwitz-trial" against 22 guards and persons involved in the camp-management.
Second Treblinka Trial in Düsseldorf
Second Treblinka Trial in Düsseldorf (1964-1965)
Third Treblinka Trial in Düsseldorf
Third Treblinka Trial in Düsseldorf (1969-1970).
Accessing the Tripartite Pact
The Yugoslav government signed the Tripartite Pact accession.
The military coup in Belgrade and the formation of the Government under General Dusan Simovic. Hitler decides to destroy Yugoslavia as a state with the help of his allies and Yugoslavian internal enemies.
The attack on Yugoslavia
The attack of Nazi Germany and its allies against Yugoslavia began with the devastating bombing of Belgrade with hundreds of aircrafts. During the bombing on the 6th, 7th, 11th and 12th of April more than 2,000 civilians were killed, many buildings, objects and pieces of historical cultural heritage of irreplaceable value were destroyed. (Among others the National Library was purposely targeted and destroyed)
Independent State of Croatia
Proclamation of the Independent State of Croatia in Zagreb along with the entry of German military units.
German troops in Belgrade
The first German troops entered Belgrade; Looting of shops and apartments by the German soldiers and the local ethnic Germans. Jewish assets are particularly targeted.
Military occupation administration
Establishing the military occupation administration with an extended repressive apparatus where the Operative Police Group and the Operative Police Headquarters headed by SS-colonel Wilhelm Fuchs and SS-major Karl Kraus play the major role; Its centre is the notorious sub department IV of the German Security Police – Gestapo, including the Police Department for Jewish Affairs “Judenreferat” under the command of SS-colonel Fritz Strake.
Registration of the Jews
A Proclamation by the head of the Operative Police Group that on April 19th the Jews must report to the Fire Command in Tasmajdan, under threat of death. Thus began the registration and marking of the Jews with the yellow bands on the sleeves.
The capitulation of the Yugoslav army
The Yugoslav army signs the unconditional capitulation.
Forced labor for Jews
Jews are forced to work on clearing debris and excavation of the corpses of those killed in the bombings. Jews are fired from public service jobs.
German military administration in Serbia
Establishment of the German military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht in Serbia (includes most of the central Serbia, northern Kosovo and Banat region).
Restoring the Belgrade Police
Dragomir-Dragi Jovanović appointed as head of the highest Serbian administrative and police authority in Belgrade. The beginning of restoration of the Belgrade police.
The Germany-Italy agreement
General Helmut Förster appointed as the administrative Military Commander of Serbia. Head of the Administrative Staff is Harald Turner. Head of the Military Staff is Colonel Gravenhorst. The agreement between Germany and Italy in Vienna on the division of the Yugoslav territory.
Orders by the German field commander in Belgrade, Colonel Ernst Moritz von Kaisenberg: all Jews in Belgrade may use public fountains only after 10.30 a.m. and only first after other "Aryans" get the water supplies. and prohibits All retailers are prohibited to secretly sell goods to the Jews. For violation of this order the retailers will be punished with fines, imprisonment, or sent to concentration camps.
Anti-Jewish measures: prohibition of driving trams
On trams are prominent signs that the Jews prohibited driving.
Anti-Jewish measures: call for registration
Call for Jews to report for registration at Kalemegdan.
Collaborationist government in Serbia
The formation of the Council of Commissioners, the first collaborationist government in Serbia, led by Milan Acimovic, who was also at the helm of the Ministry of Interior.
Forming Serbian Gendarmerie
The formation of the Gendarmerie Command, under which by the end of May there were approximately 3,000 gendarmes.
Collaborationist government in Belgrade
Order by Milan Acimovic was formed Management Belgrade, headed by Dragi Jovanovic as the main Serbian administrative and police authorities in Belgrade. Its most important police authority were Special Police Department, whose seventh section was responsible for the implementation of measures against Jews and Gypsies (Roma). At the head was the police commissioner Jovan Nikolic.
I started to go out the main daily newspaper "New Time".
Anti-Jewish measures: ban on the use of the phone
German Order of Regional Military Command that Jews must not have phones and use them.
Anti-Jewish measures: a ban on possession cameras and refrigerators
The order of the Administrator of the city of Belgrade that Jews must not be held for cameras and refrigerators.
Anti-Jewish measures: Disclosure
Publication of "Order relating to the Jews and Gypsies" in the list of regulations Military commanders in Serbia. All previous measures are codified. Commissioners are set to "manage" Jewish enterprises and shops. The same measures also apply to Rome.
The explosion in Smederevo
Large occupied by ammunition explosion in Smederevo. It was destroyed much of the city with more than 2,000 victims.
German attack on the Soviet Union
Attack Germany and its allies and satellites of the Soviet Union. The beginning of mass and systematic murder of the Jews. Mass arrests of members of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and their sympathizers. The meeting of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia in Belgrade, which issued a proclamation "Uništavajmo enemy" with reference to resistance to occupation. Creating a communist task forces in the cities.
Resistance: forming Valjevskog Partisan Unit
Resistance: forming Valjevskog Partisan Unit
Resistance: sabotage on the line Nis-Leskovac
Diversion on the line Nis-Leskovac.
Resistance: the decision of organizing the uprising
Meeting of the Politburo and the decision on raising the general uprising in Yugoslavia; sending delegates to the individual parts with instructions for uprising. Action cutting the main line station Radio Belgrade.
Listing of shooting 13 "communists and Jews." Stronger anti-Jewish propaganda and accusations that Jews are the leaders and financiers "gangs".
Resistance: the first armed action of partisans
The first armed action of partisans: the killing of two gendarmes in the Bela Crkva.
The camp Banjica
The first group of prisoners interned in the newly formed camp in the barracks in Banjica - Concentration Camp Beograd / Anhaltelager Dedinje (Dedinje Anhaltelager). The camp was under German command and had two parts: higher and lower for German prisoners of Serbian quisling government. Warden of the Serbian part of the camp was Svetozar Vujković. The camp becomes a reservoir for all the massive hostage shooting.
Resistance: action burning newspaper
Action burning newspaper the near Karadjordjev Park.
Resistance: action burning German military vehicles
Great action by resistance, they burned German military vehicles in garages in Milesevska and Grobljanska Street. For retaliation German forces shot 17 patriots.
Proclamation of the shooting 16 "Communists and Jews" for sabotage in Belgrade.
The camp in Sabac
Internment of about 1,100 Jewish refugees from Central Europe (Kladovski transport) in the camp in Sabac (Frontier barracks on the Sava river).
Jews and Gypsies as hostages
Order Harald Turner, head of the Administrative Staff of the Serbian Army commander, county and the district military commands that hostage for retaliation should be taken primarily Jews and Roma.
Resistance: action burning German military vehicles
Several burning of German military vehicle in Belgrade and other military facilities.
Resistance: action ignition newspaper
Simultaneous action ignition newspapers in various parts of the city.
Strengthening of repression against the people of Belgrade
Strengthening of repression against the people of Belgrade: the extension of the curfew for Jews even shorter than the rest of the citizenry. Shooting 122 "communists and Jews" due to sabotage on German military vehicles.
Belgrade to pay a fine
Commander of Belgrade order it that city must pay contribution of 10 million dinars for sabotage.
Resistance: published Bulletin
The Bulletin of Main Staff of the National Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia began to go out.
Destroyed village Skela
Destroyed village Skela. Shooting of male residents and camp prisoners from Banjica.
Hanged patriots on Terazije square
Shooting followed by hanging of the five patriots on electricity poles on Terazije square. Parade and Assembly ethnic Germans organization from Belgrade and Zemun at the Faculty of Engineering.
The deportation of Jews from Banat to Belgrade
The deportation of Jews from Banat to Belgrade from 18 August to 20 September.
Concentration camp Topovske šupe
Forming a concentration camp for Jews in Topovske šupe at Autokomanda in Belgrade. Directory internment of Banat, then Belgrade Jewish men.
Nedic at the head of
The commander of Serbia appointed "national salvation government" headed by General Milan Nedic.
Resistance: the liberation of Loznica
The combined forces of both resistance movement, the royalist and the partizan army, liberated Loznica.
Shooting 50 communists
Shooting 50 communists for killing a German soldier in Belgrade.
New wave of arrests
Order from the commander of Serbia to "arrest all active officers and non-commissioned officers, all Jews and Gypsies." A new wave of arrests and internment of Jews in the camp Topovske šupe, and partly to camp in Banjica.
The uprising erupt
Departure of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and the commander of the partizan Josip Broz Tito from Belgrade to the western Serbia. The order of Adolf Hitler to suppress the uprising in Serbia with most sever means. The order of the Supreme Command of the German armed forces in Serbia, from that moment for every dead German soldier or ethnic Germans will be shoot 100 "communists" and 50 for wounded.
Shooting 187 Jews
Shooting 187 Jews from the camp in Banjica.
General Franz Böhme called to suppress the uprising
Appointment of General Franz Böhme (Franz Boehme) for Plenipotentiary of the commander in Serbia with a mission to suppress the uprising in Serbia.
Chetnik-Partizan attack on Sabac
Unsuccessful Chetnik-Partizan attack on Sabac from 21 to 23 September.
Mass reprisals against the population
Crossing the 342 German divisions from Srem to Sabac and the beginning of mass internment and execution of the population.
Shooting of 2200 hostages from the camp Topovske sheds and camp in Sabac
The order of General Bohme that for the killed 21 German soldiers must be secure, from the camp in Sabac and Belgrade (Topovske sheds), 2,100 prisoners, primarily Jews and Communists. Due to the death of another soldier the number had gone up to 2,200.
Shooting of Jews from the camp Topovske shed
9. and 11. October: the beginning of the shooting of Jews from the camp Topovske shed on the road Pancevo-Jabuka in southern Banat.
Plan of a large concentration camp
The order for the construction of a large concentration camp in Zasavica for internment rebels, insurgent population from the area and all the remaining Jews and Roma.
New wave of arrests
The order of General Bohme that from whole territory of Serbia must be arrested as hostages all the communists and suspected, all Jews, and part of the nationalists and democrats. The camp Topovske sheds has become a major reservoir of Jewish hostages for execution.
Shooting hostages from the camp in Sabac
12th and 13th October: shooting hostages from the camp in Sabac in Zasavica. Shot 750 Jews from Kladovo transport, 84 Gypsies, and few Serbs.
Mass shootings in Kraljevo
In the period from 15 to 20 October, due to losses in the battle with the Chetnik-Partisan units that were besieging Kraljevo, in the city 2,194 hostages were shot.
Shooting ''200 Communists and Jews'' in Belgrade
Because of the attacks on two German soldiers, in Belgrade were shot "200 Communists and Jews."
Mass shooting in Kragujevac
Because of fallen German soldiers, in three villages around Kragujevac were shot 415 Serbs. Shooting continued in the following days in Kragujevac.
Mass shooting in Kragujevac continued
On 20th and 21th October in Kragujevac were executed 2,381 people, among them 37 Jews.
Opening the Anti-Masonic Exhibition in Belgrade
Opening the Anti-Masonic Exhibition in Belgrade - the culmination of anti-Jewish propaganda campaigns.
The mass shooting of Jews and Gypsies from the Topovske Šupe concentration camp
The mass shooting of Jews and Gypsies from the Topovske Šupe concentration camp at the execution site in the southern Banat, from 27th to 30th October.
Preparation for The Sajmište concentration camp
The order of General Boehme to build a new camp, because of the flood, instead in Zasavici, to a new place at the Belgrade fairgrounds. Obtaining the consent of the Government of the Independent State of Croatia for new camp at Belgrade Fair (which was part of the town Zemun).
The beginning of open conflict between Partisan and Royalist Resistance Movement
The beginning of open conflict between Partisan and Royalist Resistance Movement.
Shooting 100 ''Communists and Jews
Shooting "100 Communists and Jews" because of the attack on the German guards.
The offensive of the German forces
The offensive of the German forces on the Partisan free territory in western Serbia.
Defeat of partisan forces and withdrawal
Defeat of partisan forces and withdrawal to the Italian occupation zone.
Jews and Gypsies would be transferred to The Sajmište concentration camp
Report of General Bohme that all Jews and Gypsies would be transferred "to a concentration camp near Zemun" (Belgrade Fairgrounds).
Start internment of all Jews in the Jewish Camp Zemun
Start internment of all Jews from Serbia, mostly women and children, in the newly formed Jewish Camp Zemun (Semlin Judenlager -Judenlager Semlin)
Internment of Belgrade Jews and Gypsies in The Sajmište concentration camp
From the 8th to 13th December: internment Belgrade Jews to The Sajmište concentration camp. Internment of Gypsies women and children in the same camp but in a separate pavilion.
Jews from The Banjica concentration camp transferred to The Sajmište concentration camp
Transferring Jewish women from The Banjica concentration camp to The Sajmište concentration camp. Commissar Administration Jewish home and land property from the Staff of the General the representative for the Serbian economy Franca Neuhausen (Franz Neuhausen) began the assessment and sale of Jewish property.
The death penalty for the one who helps the Jews
The publication "Regulation relating to the admission to shelter for Jews" which is under the threat the death penalty barred from receiving and giving the shelter or hide Jews and ordered the surrender of all Jewish property entrusted for safekeeping.
Jews from the camp in Sabac transferred to The Sajmište concentration camp
From camp in Sabac to the Sajmište concentration camp were sent the 312 Jewish women and children from the Kladovo transport and from Sabac.
Jews from the camp in Nis transferred to the Sajmište concentration camp
Deportation of 282 Jewish women and children from the camp in Nis to the Sajmište concentration camp.
The decision in Berlin: all Jews in Serbia must be killed in Serbia
Decisions of the RSHA (Reich Main Security Office - Reichssicherheitshauptamt) in Berlin to kill the Jews of Serbia in Serbia itself. Arrival from Berlin to Belgrade truck-gas chamber (dušegupka) and the two SS-NCOs that will manage it.
The deportation of Jews from Kosovska Mitrovica to The Sajmište concentration camp
Deported about 500 Jews from Kosovska Mitrovica (Novi Pazar, Sjenica and Kosovska Mitrovica) to The Sajmište concentration camp.
The first victims from a gas van -
From 19th to 22nd of March: the killing of Jews 700-800 (patients, doctors, hospital staff and their families) from the Jewish Hospital in Dorcol. The first use of "dušegupka" - riding a special truck renovated into a mobile gas chamber victims were suffocated with gas on the way to a military firing range in Jajinci, where they waited prepared holes.
Release of the remaining Gypsies from the Sajmište concentration camp
At the end of March: the release of the remaining Gypsies from the Sajmište concentration camp. Meanwhile, at least 60 Gypsies prisoners died from the cold, disease and hunger.
Start killing all the Jews in The Sajmište concentration camp
In late March - early April: Start the campaign of killing all Jewish prisoners at The Sajmište concentration camp on the road between the camp and firing range in Jajinci asphyxiation in "dušegupci".
Founded Bureau for Jewish flats
Provincial Military Command 599 has established the Bureau for apartments (Wohnungsamt - Wohnungsamt) to assign the Jewish flats.
Killing the last group of Jews from the camp
Killing the last group of Jews from the camp. A total of 6,320 Jewish prisoners were killed by asphyxiation in "dušegupci" - truck mobile gas chamber.
Memorandum Fritz Rademacher:
According to the memorandum of Fritz Rademacher (Fritz Rademacher) from the German Foreign Ministry, "the Jewish question" in Serbia is no longer actual.
Report of Emanuela Scheffer: there is no more
Report of Emanuela Scheffer (Emanuel Schaefer) to General Walther Kuntceu (Walter Kuntze) that in Serbia there is no more "the Jewish question".
Shooting remaining Jews from the hospitals in Belgrade
On July 2nd and 3rd: Taking and shooting of Jews from the hospitals in Belgrade: 5 from the Belgrade hospital trade youth and 17 from the Mental Hospital in Belgrade.
Report by Harald Turner:
Report Harald Turner (Harald Turner) to a General Aleksander Ler (Alexander Loehr) that Serbia is "the only country where the Jewish and Gypsy issue is solved."
Shooting remaining Jews from the hospital in Kovin
Shooting 11 Jewish patients from the Mental Hospital in Kovin.
Успостављање команде Прихватног логора Земун
Успостављање команде новог логора на Београдском сајмишту, Прихватног логора Земун (Anhaltelager Semlin) од особља Гестапоа из Београда.
The beginning of work the Reception camp
Од 1943. у логор су стизали и заточеници из Грчке и Албаније ради упућивања у друге немачке логоре. Arrival of the first group of captured partisans from Cacak in reception camps Zemun, 117 of them, and then new large group from the camp in Serbia and from Ustasha camp Jasenovac. The detainees were then deported to concentration camps in Norway, Greece, in the concentration camp Mauthausen, Auschwitz, to labor camps in Bor and Trepca, on executions in Jajinci and various place in Srem. From 1943 to the camp arrived and the prisoners from Greece and Albania for referral to other German camps.
Transport of Jews from Split
Arrival of a group of 145 Jews from Split (86 men and 59 women with children).
Sonderkommando 1005 - hide traces of the crime
From November 1943 to March 1944. The special command Sonderkommando 1005 working on destroying the corpses of those killed in Jajinci, with the aim of concealing the traces of the crime.
The bombing of the camp
The bombing of the camp by the Anglo-American aviation. The death and wounding of hundreds of prisoners on 16th and 17th April in 1944.
Gestapo surrender The Sajmište concentration camp to the Ustasha police
Gestapo was handed over camp to the administration of the Ustasha police.
Transport of 440 Jews from Kosovo and Metohija
Arrival of transport in Pristina with 440 Jews from Kosovo and Metohija and Jewish refugees arrested in Montenegro.
The deportation of Jews from Pristina
Deportation of groups from Pristina to the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen.
Deporting groups from Pristina to the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen
Deporting groups from Pristina to the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen
The liberation of Belgrade
The liberation of Belgrade by the National Liberation Army of Yugoslavia and the Red Army.
Forming Survey Commission for the Investigation of the Crimes
November 1944: Survey formation of the Commission for Investigation of the Crimes of The Sajmište concentration camp; exhumation of bodies at the Jewish cemetery in Zemun and Bezanijska cemetery.
Holocaust in occupied Serbia and concentration camp at Sajmiste
Occupation, persecution, resistance and Holocaust
Milan Koljanin, PhD Historian, Senior Researcher at the Institute for Contemporary History, Belgrade