A Walk through Jewish inter-war Belgrade
Belgrade, once capital of Kingdom of Serbia emerged from the Great War devastated and scarred, but at the same time as the capital of the three-time bigger state than before the war: Kingdom of Yugoslavia to become. Next twenty years were dedicated to catching up with Europe in all areas of life – especially – in modernization . At that time the city, as well as life in it, started to change dramatically: in twenty years the city grew three times larger  and the life in it became more comfortable and luxurious: many modern palaces were constructed with central heating, bathrooms, elevators and phones.  The first line of urban transport along with the taxi service and the first private cars were introduced. 
This was the time when Josephine Becker visited Belgrade  while everybody was already dancing in the rhythm of jazz orchestras.  Modern theatres emerged playing Shakespeare in English, Arthur Rubinstein twice played Bach and Beethoven at the New University in October 1927, and Berlin opera performed Mozart in the National Theatre. Modern clubs opened in Belgrade, Auto-Moto and Aero-Club being the most popular.  Many children started their education at French  or English private schools, and first tourists were able to land at Belgrade Airport.  Two big bridges were constructed over Sava and Danube  and in September 1938, Philips staged the first television broadcast in the Balkans from its pavilion at the Belgrade Exhibition Grounds.  In the same year, Czechoslovakian car manufacturer Škoda constructed a 74m tall steel parachute tower, the highest in Europe at the time. Yugoslavia won the third place in the FIFA First World football Cup in 1930, and in September 1939 Belgrade saw the first Racing Car Grand Prix around Kalimegdan. 
For Belgrade, the inter-war period was la belle époque.
Fully integrated in Serbian Society, Jews (referred to as “Serbs of Moses religion”) were the most significant national minority that largely contributed to this development. 
Jews in Belgrade
There are data about Jews living in Belgrade as early as Roman times. There is even a custom of reading Megilat Ester on the second day of the Purim holiday, which is the custom that was, according to Mishna, prescribed only for cities that were fortified in the time of Joshua bin Nun.  However the reliable evidences trace Jewish presence in Belgrade back to sixteenth century where they came, after Expulsion from Spain, through Thessaloniki. They settled on the Danube bank, near the fortress, in the neighbroohood known as Jalija (turkish the bank). Even today, one of main streets in former Jewish neighborhood bears the name of Thessaloniki. In seventeenth century, during the time of rabbi Jehuda Lerma, Belgrade became the third most important Jewish learning center in Ottoman Empire (beside Istanbul and Thessaloniki) with the famous yeshiva, active for more than fifty years. 
However, modern period in the history of Belgrade Jewry started towards the end of nineteenth century. Jewish Community developed its activities following the Serbian constitution of 1888, when Jews were granted full civil rights. From that time on, focal point of Jewish organization became the Jewish community officially known as Religious-Educational Jewish Community, either Sephardic or Ashkenazi. 
Following the end of WWI and the consequent events, Serbia was the second state to sign the Balfour declaration.  About eleven thousand Jews lived in Belgrade in 1939, 80% of them were Sephardim. 
The Ashkenazi community settled in Belgrade later than Sephardic, and lived near the Sava river bank. There was an older Ashkenazi synagogue in the vicinity of the present one, established in the nineteenth century. The present one, Sukat Shalom Synagogue was designed in academic style by Franjo Urban and Milan Šlang,  son of the famous Belgrade rabbi Ignjat Slang that perished in Banjica Concentration Camp in 1942. A solemn ceremony of cornerstone lying took place on June 15th 1924, and a charter containing texts in Hebrew and Serbian was sealed in it. The charter was signed by King Alexander and Queen Maria of Yugoslavia. The general construction was finished by November 1, 1925, and once the interior was completed, the building was finally opened in the summer of 1926, and consecrated by rabbi Šlang. Traditionally this synagogue followed the Ashkenazi rite and served the Belgrade Jews congregation that spoke Yiddish. The building survived WWII because of the fact that was turned into restaurant and brothel by the Germans.  “Working girls” were in private boxes on ezrat nashim (women’s gallery). Re-consecration of the synagogue after the WWII was done already by December 1944.  Later, in the basement there was a kosher mess for students and the Maccabi gym.
Also active was the Benefactor, the Society of the Ashkenazi women founded in 1894. Its main aim was to support sick and poor women, mothers and girls. In the interwar period its president was Elza Feldman. It is also interesting to notice here that, unlike Sephardic community that had more than fifteen supportive societies, beside this one and traditional Hevra kadisha Society there were no other humanitarian societies within the Ashkenazi community. 
Dr. Fridrih Pops, lawyer, was the president of Ashkenazi community during the inter-war period. He was a very well-known Serbian patriot , member of Democratic Party and initiator of the Ashkenazi synagogue construction. He was also one of the cofounders of the Association of Jewish communities of Yugoslavia and the B’nei brit lodge.  He dedicated his work to overcoming differences with Sephardic community. In popular culture he is still now well known as the father-in-law of the famous football player Milutin Ivković-Milutinac.
Since gaining civil rights in 1888,  all professions were at the disposal of Jews in Serbia. On the eve of WWII, the Sephardic community consisted of, for example, 27% merchants, 21% civil servants, 8% craftsmen and 4% doctors and engineers.  But they were not all rich – 74% paid the lowest possible tax and four hundred families were too poor to pay any tax.  On the other side, there were rich Jews like Alkan Djerassi manufacturer and rentier, who erected the large beautiful building with flats for rent, today a kindergarten. Many were distinguished tradesman, doctors, solicitors and artists and they belonged to various political parties.  Better off Jews were not numerous in comparison to the rest of the population, but they invested money into industry (food industry, mills  , sugar production, textile industry, leather industry, construction, banking  and wholesale trading).
Through the activities of many humanitarian  and cultural organizations, community life grew more important and produced significant impact to the general Serbian society, evident also through construction of synagogues, community buildings and many important buildings, either private or business, that were put up.
Author: Čedomila Marinković, PhD
Art Historian / Independent Scholar, Belgrade
The text is dedicated to the memory of Albert Semnitz, Belgrade Jew who was the first to declare his property (essentially nothing) in May 1941, and was among the first Belgrade Jews to be taken to Topovske šupe Concentration Camp in October 1941, and killed.
Belgrade rabbi Ignjat Šlang before WWII. Photo: Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade
Jews in Belgrade, book by Rabbi Ignjat Šlang, Belgrade 1926, reprint 2006. Photo: Čedomila Marinković
Jewish Architecture in Belgrade in the inter-war period
Hotel “Palace“ owned and built by engineer Leon Talvi in 1923, was the most beautiful and most modern hotel in the whole country and without competition even in the Balkans. Constructed in reinforced concrete, with two basements, ground floor and six floors, it had its own power plant, cooling installation and ice-cream production, laundry, pumps for hot water, central heating, large kitchen, three lifts, post office and car or bus transfer. Silver cutlery, gallery of paintings and sculptures in five lounges on the fifth floor, worth 2.5 million dinars, with Italian, French, Russian and local artists paintings, open roof restaurant, café, restaurant, dancing theater and banquette halls made it even more special. According to Politika newspaper, the first Yugoslav Zionist congress took place in the theater hall of this hotel on June 16th and 17th 1924.
Čelebonović Palace was named after dr Jakov Čelebonović, lawyer and president of Sephardic community. The building was built from 1927 to 1929 by renowned architects S. Belić and N. Krasnov. It was built as a two-story palace in the academic style, had a remarkable entrance and a spacious marble staircase with ferre forgé.
Jakov and Johana (Jovana) Čelebonović had six children, of whom Marko and Aleksa occupy a special place in Serbian culture and art. Marko (Mordehaj) Čelebonović is one of the most important Serbian painters of the twentieth century, an Aleksa Čelebonović eminent art historian, university professor and art critic.  Due to Dr Čelebonović’s reputation in social life of Belgrade between two wars, and the fact that he was the president of Sephardic community, the Palace itself used to be the hub of cultural life, the meeting place of renowned people of the period like Geca Kon (1873-1941?) , the most famous Belgrade publisher who, over forty years, published more than four thousand titles of Serbian and many foreign authors. Besides publishing Geca Kon invented many of modern book selling methods and was the first one to publish high school and university text books covering a wide range of topics from Science to Humanities. His books store in Knez Mihailova 12 is still the most important bookstore in Belgrade ; Stanislav Vinaver (1891-1955),  man of letters, poet, and translator. Vinaver volunteered in the Balkan wars and took part in World War I as one of the 1,300 corporal’s famous students battalion, in which he was a lieutenant; Georgije Ostrogorsky (1902-1976)  – founder of the famous Belgrade Byzantine school; Šemaja Demajo (1877-1932) , lawyer, member of Radical Party, vice president of Belgrade municipality; Lujo Davičo (1910-1942) , ballet dancer, and many others.
The first modern department store in Belgrade was built in 1907 by Victor Azriel. Its owner, Bencion Buli (1867-1933), was banker and Parliament deputy, member of Radical party and very well-known Serbian patriot, decorated with three major Serbian decorations (Decoration of St. Sava II order, Star of Karadjordje, White eagle decoration). 
Buli’s Department store was the first modern commercial building in Belgrade, with several interconnected stories and the unique, open retail space. The facade has the Art Nouveau style decoration with beautiful masks, swans and floral elements. This building even today represents the most beautiful example of that style in Belgrade. 
Jews were the first to accept all modern innovations in various fields of life: the first football ball was brought to Belgrade by Bencion’s brother, Hugo Buli (1875-1941/42), who played football in Berlin “Germania” and who introduced this sport to Serbia as early as in 1896; The first steam bakery “Soko”, daughter company of the famous Viennese Ankerbrot Bäckerai, was founded and managed by the Jew Jovan Fisher.  “Micky Jazz” was the first jazz orchestra established in 1923 by the Jews,  and the first sound movie was screened in the Colosseum Cinema Theater, owned by Jews, Kronstein and the Tatajcak-Andjelković brothers, in 1929 – to mention just a few of them. 
Even the very modern architectural Art Nouveau style was first embraced by Jews whose houses decorated in that style can still be seen along the Kralja Petra Street.  Kralja Petra Street is an old and interesting street, linking Sava and Danube riverbanks, and also two worlds, in which one can find an orthodox church, the synagogue and the mosque. Jewish families lived in almost every building in this street until WWII.  After the WWI, Sephardi Jews, who lived at the Danube river bank, started to move up the hill towards the city center and Knez Mihailova Street. 
The new home of the Jewish Sephardic Council as well as the Beth Israel synagogue were built in the span of twenty years in the Kralja Petra and Cara Uroša streets. Funds for both were provided by Jewish benefactors Matatija Levi and his wife Rachel. The Community building was erected in 1928 by Sarajevo born architect Samuel Sumbul and decorated by lavish oriental Moorish ornaments. It has a ground floor and five upper floors. Besides offices and flats for rent, there is a large hall designed for ceremonies, meetings and Purim balls. Community home housed many scholastic and cultural associations and societies: Jewish library,  Serbian-Jewish Coral Society, Hashomer Hacair, Makabi Theater.  After the Nazi occupation, this building was appropriated by Kulturbund that destroyed all the paintings of the famous Jewish painter Leon Kohen. During German occupation Jews were not even allowed to walk along this part of the street.
Dorćol – the Old Jewish neighborhood
Romantic life of Jewish families in Jalija by the Danube, in the period before WWI, can be found in the books of Haim Davičo who described small Balkan type houses with huge fragrant gardens full of flowers in front of which Sephardic women of exotic names: Perla, Luna, Reina sat on benches during hot summer Belgrade nights singing old ballads in ladino. 
The first Jewish community building in Belgrade was erected in 1860 in Dorćol, in Solunska Street- It was the famous Old Home or mildar.  In the vicinity of it was the El Kal Vieho, the Old synagogue, focus of Jewish (Sephardic) life in Belgrade for more than three hundred years. A beautiful two storey building, in decorative Moorish style  , designed by Samuel Sumbul, was added to this traditional environment in 1923. Its large hall served for various public gatherings, social events – like pre-election political meetings, weddings, religious ceremonies, and occasionally, as a synagogue. One-storey building in the yard was added in 1929, and served as an old people’s home.
These tree buildings completely dominated the life of almost every Dorćol Jew.
The Society of Jewish Women, founded in 1894, was the first such Society among all Sephardi in Europe.  It played an important part in the education of Jewish children. The Society activities centered on aiding needy mothers with small babies and sick women, as well as needy brides-to-be. During WW I, many members of the Society became nurses, one of the most famous being Neti Munk. From 1920-41 Jelena Demajo was the President. She introduced new spirit: an artisan school for women was opened, and soon it became the first Junior Crafts School in Belgrade. The Society opened Carmel, nursing home for children, in Prčanj, Boka Kotorska, at the Adriatic coast, in 1926. Home for Children and Counseling Office for Mothers was opened in 1938, together with the health center for mothers and a kindergarten, a dining room and shelter for children.  This modern building was designed by architects Miša Manojlović and Victor Azriel. At the beginning of June 1941 this building became the Jewish hospital with Dr Bukić Pijade as its director.  The first deadly trip of the gas van – dušegupka – towards Jajinci, started from this place in the morning of March 18h 1942. 
La belle époque of Belgrade Jewry abruptly came to its end.
Bond for the building of Ashenazi Synagogue, Belgrade 1920ties. Photo: Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade
Samuel Sumbul, Home of the Sephardic Community, Kralja Petra Street 71, Belgrade, 1928. Photo: Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade
Leon Talvi, Palace Hotel Belgrade, Topličin Venac 23, 1924. Photo: Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade
Samuel Sumbul, Oneg Shabbat, Gemilut Hassadim Society Building, 1923. Jewish Street 16, Belgrade. Photo: Jewish Historical Museum, Belgrade
– Аутомобил у Београду, (A Car in Belgrade) exhibition catalogue. Београд: Публикум, 2002.
– Blam, Mihailo, Jazz u Srbiji (Jazz in Serbia). Beograd: Stubovi kulture, 2011.
– Божовић, Александар, Синагога Сукат Шалом (Sukat Shalom Synagogue). Београд: Завод за заштиту споменика културе града Београда, 2013.
– Veselinović, Jovanka, „Spisak Jevreja i supružnika jevreja koji su, prema naredbi vojnog zapovednika u Srbiji od 30. Maja 1941. Podneli opštini grada Beograda prijave o imovini“ (The list of Jews and their spouses who submitted accounts of their material assets), Zbornik JIM 6, (1992): 375-406.
– Гаон, Александар (ур.), Знаменити Јевреји Србије (Famous Serbian Jews, biographical lexicon). Батајница: Спринт 2011.
– Davičo, Haim S. , Priče sa Jalije (Stories from Jalija). Beograd: Standard 2, 2000.
– Davidović, Radivoje, Jevrejska čitaonica (The Jewish Library). Beograd: Čigoja, 2016.
accessed on November 25, 2016.
– Ибрајтер Газибара, Бојана, Робни магазин ⦋Department store⦌. Београд: Завод за заштиту културе града Београда, 2011.
– Lebl, Ženi, „Sinagoge u Beogradu” (Synagogues in Belgrade), Zbornik JIM 7 (1997): 80 – 101.
– Manojlović-Pintar, Olga, Mesta stradanja i antifoamšitičke borbe u Beogradu 1941-44. (Places of suffering and antifascist struggle in Belgrade 1941-44). Beograd: Pekograf, 2013.
– Марковић, Предраг “Теорија модернизације и њена критичка примена на Југославију и друге источноевропске земље” (Modernization Тheory and its critical applications on Yugoslavia and other Eastern European countries), Годишњак за друштвену историју 1 (1994): 11-34.
– Николова, Maja и Војин Николић (ур.), Француско-српска школа Сен Жозеф. (French-Serbian Institute St. Joseph) Београд: Пегагошки музеј, 2008.
– Priča o komšijama kojih više nema (The tale of the neighbors that are no more), exhibition catalogue. Beograd:B92, 1997.
– Tajtacak, David, „Beogradski Jevreji i njihova zanimanja (od kraja 19. veka do II svetskog rata)“ (Jews of Belgrade and their occupations – from the end of 19th Century till the WWII) Jevrejski pregled, avgust/septembar 2016, 14-16.
– Поповић, Небојша, Јевреји у Србији 1918-1941. (Jews in Serbia 1918-1941) Београд:Графомарк, 1997.
– Старчевић, Вeлимир Књига о Геци Кону (A Book about Geca Kon). Београд: Admiral Books, 2009.
– Filipović, Јеlena, Vučina-Simović, Ivana, „Philanthropy and Emancipation among Sephardic women in the Balkans in times of Modernity”, Journal of Sephardic Studies, vol. 1: 78-95.
– Frajdenrajh, Harijet Pas, “Jevreji Beograda između ratova” (Jews in Belgrade between wars) Zbornik JIM 6 (1992): 367-368.
– Храбак, Богумил, Јевреји у Београду до стицања равноправности 1878. (Jews in Belgrade till acquirement of equality 1878) Београд: Чигоја. 2009.
– Шланг, Игњат, Јевреји у Београду (Jews in Belgrade). Нови Сад: HiCad, 20062.
[1 Modernization is the common term for several processes like urbanization, industrialization, social specialization and democratization. Cf. Предраг Марковић, “Теорија модернизације и њена критичка примена на Југославију и друге источноевропске земље”, ⦋Modernization Theory and its critical applications on Yugoslavia and other Eastern European countries⦌, Годишњак за друштвену историју 1 (1994): 11-34.
[2 Number of Belgrade inhabitants in 1921. was 111 739 and in 1941. 320 000. Harijet Pas Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda između ratova,” ⦋Jews in Belgrade between wars⦌, Zbornik JIM 6 (1992): 365, f.1.
[3 Аmong most remarkable аrе Samuel Sumbul’s Sephardic Community House, Roger-Henri Expert’s French Embassy, Vojin Simeonović’s Aero-Club, Miladin Prljević and Đorđe Lazarević’s Albania Palace and Dragiša Brašovan’s State printing House.
[4 Аутомобил у Београду, exhibition catalogue, ⦋Car in Belgrade⦌, (Београд: Публикум 2002), 44-57.
[5 Josephine Baker visit Belgrade from 2nd to 9th of April 1929. Newspaper Време ⦋Time⦌ from 2nd and 8th of April 1929, has a big coverage of this event.
[6 Mihailo Blam, Jazz u Srbiji, ⦋Jazz in Serbia⦌, (Beograd: Stubovi kulture 2011), 21-29.
[7 Auto-moto Club was founded in 1922. and Serbian Aero-Club was founded in 1921. In 1928. it changed the name first in Yugoslav Aero-club “Our wings” and then in “Royal Yugoslav Aero-club Our wings” in1935.
[8 Маја Николова, Војин Николић (ур.), Француско-српска школа Сен Жозеф, ⦋French-Serbian Institute St. Joseph⦌, (Београд: Пегагошки музеј 2008).
[9 Belgrade Airport was open in March 1927. By the end of the next decade there were more than 14 regular lines that operated daily.
[10 King Alexander I Bridge over Sava was constructed in 1934, and King Peter II Bridge over Danube in 1935.
accessed on November 25, 2016.
[12 Аутомобил у Београду, 135-137.
[13 Serbs considered Jews patriotic citizens because they bravely participated in the Balkan and First World War. In these wars more than 600 Jews fought as officers and soldiers and about 150 were killed or died of typhus. Also Serbo-Croatian was a spoken language for more than 54% of Belgrade Jews, and also the official language of both communities. Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 367-368.
[14 Игњат Шланг, Јевреји у Београду ⦋Jews in Belgrade⦌, (Нови Сад:HiCad 20062), 2; Б. Храбак, Јевреји у Београду до стицања равноправности 1878 ⦋Jews in Belgrade till acquirement of equality (1878)⦌, (Београд: Чигоја 2009), 14. Along with Shushan (which is located in modern-day southwestern Iran) all cities that were walled at the time when the Israelites, under the leadership of Joshua, entered Canaan, in around 13th century BCE, observe Purim on the 15th Adar.
[15 Шланг, Јевреји у Београду, 26-39; Храбак, Јевреји у Београду до стицања равноправност, 114.
[16 Небојша Поповић, Јевреји у Србији 1918-1941 ⦋Jews in Serbia 1918-1941⦌ (Београд: Графомарк 1997), 39-42.
[17 David Albala (1886 – 1942) was a Serbian military officer, physician, diplomat, and Jewish community leader. Under his influence, Serbia became the first country in the world to openly endorse the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which called for the Jewish homeland in Palestine. “I authorize you to say in my name that my government is in thorough accord with the statement made by Arthur J. Balfour on behalf of Great Britain favoring the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.” – David Albala, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 23, 1917.
[18 Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 365.
[19 Александар Божовић, Синагога Сукат Шалом ⦋Sukat Shalom Sinagogue⦌, (Београд: Завод за заштиту споменика културе града Београда 2013).
[20 Божовић, Синагога, 4; Ženi Lebl, „Sinagoge u Beogradu”, ⦋Synagogues in Belgrade⦌, Zbornik JIM 7 (1997): 80 – 101.
[21 Among the rare survivals was Raka Ruben, photographer of the Politika newspaper, famous for his photos of the funeral of King Aleksander I Karađorđević in1934, coup d’état of 27. March 1941 and the first post-war train on Brčko-Banović railway. Александар Гаон (ур.), Знаменити Јевреји Србије, ⦋Famous Serbian Jews, biographical lexicon⦌ (Батајница: Спринт 2011), 209-210.
[22 Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 370, f. 19; Поповић, Јевреји у Србији, 44.
[23 Dr Fridrich Pops took part in WWI and was decorated. Гаон, Знаменити Јевреји Србије, 186-187.
[24 According to Nebojša Popović, one of the major tasks of B’nei Brit lodge was to reduce antagonisms between the Ashkenazi and Sephardic communities. Поповић, Јевреји у Србији, 84.
[25 Berlin Congress – held from 13. 06 to 13. 07. 1878. – was the most important political event for the Jews in the Modern History of Serbia, because only then – and after the strong political pressure from Alliance Israelite Universelle that demanded guarantees that the Jews would be granted full citizenship rights – the Jewish question was solved. Ibid, 19.
[26 Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 366; More than 70% of Jews were employed in the non-productive area which is huge deviation in comparison to the rest of society where only 10% was in this sector. Поповић, Јевреји у Србији, 35.
[27 Priča o komšijama kojih više nema, exhibition catalogue, ⦋The tale of the neighbors that are no more⦌ (Beograd:B92 1997), 20.
[28 Between the two wars Jews took part in the public life of Belgrade and Serbia, and were represented in the Parliament. They didn’t have their own party but were members of various Serbian parties like Radical Party: Šemaja Demajo – vice president of Belgrade Municipality in 1923, dr Jakov Čelebonović, dr David Albala, Solomon Azriel, Šalom Ruso; Many Jews were in the Democrat Party too, like Rafailo Finci, Solomon Alkalaj, dr Bukić Pijade and dr Fridrih Pops. Compared to the general society, Jews were three times more numerous in the Communist Party. Its most famous members being Moša Pijade, Bihalji brothers and Baruh family. Поповић, Јевреји у Србији, 95.
[29 Twelve major mills in Serbia were owned by Jews. Ibid., 108.
[30 There were five Jewish banks. Ibid., 111-115.
[31 Apart from “Hevra Kadisha“ and “Hased shel Emet“, organizations that took care of dead and burials, there were two women societies: “Jewish Women Society“ (1874) and “Benefactor“ (1896), “Oneg Shabat Gemilut Hasidim“ for elder people, “Bikur Holim“,“Arie Air“,“Šemaja Demajo“ for supporting poor and Academician Society “Potpora” for supporting students in Serbia and abroad, “Serbian Jewish Choral Society“ (that was the hub of cultural life prior to WWI) and “Jewish Library“ which served as a specific Jewish Open University. Ibid., 47-56.
[32 Гаон, Знаменити Јевреји Србије, 257, (Алекса), 258 (Марко).
[33 Ibid., 118-119.
[34 Вeлимир Старчевић, Књига о Геци Кону ⦋Book about Geca Kon⦌, (Београд: Admiral Books 2009).
[35 Гаон, Знаменити Јевреји Србије, 56-57.
[36 Ibid., 170-171.
[37 Ibid., 81-82.
[38 Ibid., 73.
[40 Бојана Ибрајтер Газибара, Робни магазин ⦋Department store⦌, (Београд: Завод за заштиту културе града Београда, 2011.)
[42 The story is based on the private archive of Joel Fisher, Holon, Israel. In 1966. „Soko“bakery will become the famous Belgrade chocolate, candy and biscuits factory “Soko- Nada Štark.”
[43 Blam, Jazz u Srbiji, 21.
[44 David Tajtacak, „Beogradski Jevreji i njihova zanimanja (od kraja 19. Veka do II svetskog rata) ⦋Jews of Belgrade and their occupations – from the end of 19th Century till the WWII⦌,“ Jevrejski pregled, avgust/septembar 2016, 14.
[45 One of the most famous examples is the Aaron Levi’s house in Kralja Petra 39, and (today non existing ) Žak Buli’s House in 56 constructed by Stojan Titelbah.
[46 According to Jovanka Veselinović’s research, number of Jews living in Kralja Petra Street in spring of 1941 was more than 30 families and the number of Jewish shops in this very street was even bigger. Jovanka Veselinović, „Spisak Jevreja i supružnika Jevreja koji su, prema naredbi vojnog zapovednika u Srbiji od 30. Maja 1941. podneli opštini grada Beograda prijave o imovini“ ⦋The list of Jews and their spouses who submitted accounts of their material assets⦌, Zbornik JIM 6, (1992): 375-406.
[47 In 1921. 23% of all Jewish population lived in Dorćol municipality, 10% in the city center, 7 % in Vračar municipality, 6,5 in Palilula, 5% in Savamala and Terazije. Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 366.
[48 Radivoje Davidović, Jevrejska čitaonica ⦋The Jewish library⦌, (Beograd: Čigoja 2016).
[49 Cf. f.31.
[50 Haim S. Davičo, Priče sa Jalije ⦋Stories from Jalija⦌, (Beograd:Standard 2, 2000).
[51 Mildar was also the school building where – in 1862. – the whole community found the shelter and miraculously survived the bombing of the city. This event is well-known as Belgrade Purim.
[52 The name of the building was Oneg Shabbat, Gemilut Hasidim that means – Oneg Shabbat – Honouring the Sabbath the day of rest. The Society’s main aim was to keep the memory of the deceased. Gemilut Hasidim was an association of pious Jews which had, as its main objective, assistance to the poor and old Jews. That’s why one can find inscriptions in Hebrew and Cyrillic, mentioning the name of the Society as well as the quotation from the Psalm 71: “Do not reject me in my old age; do not forsake me when my strength has abandoned me”, above the entrance to the building.
[53 Jelena Filipović, Ivana Vučina-Simović, „Philanthropy and Emancipation among Sephardic women in the Balkans in times of Modernity”,
Journal of Sephardic Studies, vol. 1: 78-95. http://www.sefarad-studies.org
[54 Поповић, Јевреји у Србији, 48-49.
[55 In June 1941. there were sixty six doctors, twenty four medicine students, six pharmacist and twenty six nurses working in this hospital.
Olga Manojlović Pintar (et al.), Mesta stradanja i antifašitičke borbe u Beogradu 1941-44, (Beograd: Pekograf 2013), 94-98.