[1 Modernization is the common term for several processes like urbanization, industrialization, social specialization and democratization. Cf. Predrag Marković, “Teorija modernizacije i njena kritička primena na Jugoslaviju i druge istočnoevropske zemlje”, ⦋Modernization Theory and its critical applications on Yugoslavia and other Eastern European countries⦌, Godišnjak za društvenu istoriju 1 (1994): 11-34.
[2 Number of Belgrade inhabitants in 1921. was 111 739 and in 1941. 320 000. Harijet Pas Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda između ratova,” ⦋Jews in Belgrade between wars⦌, Zbornik JIM 6 (1992): 365, f.1.
[3 Among most remarkable are Samuel Sumbul’s Sephardic Community House, Roger-Henri Expert’s French Embassy, Vojin Simeonović’s Aero-Club, Miladin Prljević and Đorđe Lazarević’s Albania Palace and Dragiša Brašovan’s State printing House.
[4 Automobil u Beogradu, exhibition catalogue, ⦋Car in Belgrade⦌, (Beograd: Publikum 2002), 44-57.
[5 Josephine Baker visit Belgrade from 2nd to 9th of April 1929. Newspaper Vreme ⦋Time⦌ from 2nd and 8th of April 1929, has a big coverage of this event.
[6 Mihailo Blam, Jazz u Srbiji, ⦋Jazz in Serbia⦌, (Beograd: Stubovi kulture 2011), 21-29.
[7 Auto-moto Club was founded in 1922. and Serbian Aero-Club was founded in 1921. In 1928. it changed the name first in Yugoslav Aero-club “Our wings” and then in “Royal Yugoslav Aero-club Our wings” in1935.
[8 Maja Nikolova, Vojin Nikolić (ur.), Francusko-srpska škola Sen Žozef, ⦋French-Serbian Institute St. Joseph⦌, (Beograd: Pegagoški muzej 2008).
[9 Belgrade Airport was open in March 1927. By the end of the next decade there were more than 14 regular lines that operated daily.
[10 King Alexander I Bridge over Sava was constructed in 1934, and King Peter II Bridge over Danube in 1935.
accessed on November 25, 2016.
[12 Automobil u Beogradu, 135-137.
[13 Serbs considered Jews patriotic citizens because they bravely participated in the Balkan and First World War. In these wars more than 600 Jews fought as officers and soldiers and about 150 were killed or died of typhus. Also Serbo-Croatian was a spoken language for more than 54% of Belgrade Jews, and also the official language of both communities. Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 367-368.
[14 Ignjat Šlang, Jevreji u Beogradu ⦋Jews in Belgrade⦌, (Novi Sad:HiCad 20062), 2; B. Hrabak, Jevreji u Beogradu do sticanja ravnopravnosti 1878 ⦋Jews in Belgrade till acquirement of equality (1878)⦌, (Beograd: Čigoja 2009), 14. Along with Shushan (which is located in modern-day southwestern Iran) all cities that were walled at the time when the Israelites, under the leadership of Joshua, entered Canaan, in around 13th century BCE, observe Purim on the 15th Adar.
[15 Šlang, Jevreji u Beogradu, 26-39; Hrabak, Jevreji u Beogradu do sticanja ravnopravnost, 114.
[16 Nebojša Popović, Jevreji u Srbiji 1918-1941 ⦋Jews in Serbia 1918-1941⦌ (Beograd: Grafomark 1997), 39-42.
[17 David Albala (1886 – 1942) was a Serbian military officer, physician, diplomat, and Jewish community leader. Under his influence, Serbia became the first country in the world to openly endorse the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which called for the Jewish homeland in Palestine. “I authorize you to say in my name that my government is in thorough accord with the statement made by Arthur J. Balfour on behalf of Great Britain favoring the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine.” – David Albala, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 23, 1917.
[18 Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 365.
[19 Aleksandar Božović, Sinagoga Sukat Šalom ⦋Sukat Shalom Sinagogue⦌, (Beograd: Zavod za zaštitu spomenika kulture grada Beograda 2013).
[20 Božović, Sinagoga, 4; Ženi Lebl, „Sinagoge u Beogradu”, ⦋Synagogues in Belgrade⦌, Zbornik JIM 7 (1997): 80 – 101.
[21 Among the rare survivals was Raka Ruben, photographer of the Politika newspaper, famous for his photos of the funeral of King Aleksander I Karađorđević in1934, coup d’état of 27. March 1941 and the first post-war train on Brčko-Banović railway. Aleksandar Gaon (ur.), Znameniti Jevreji Srbije, ⦋Famous Serbian Jews, biographical lexicon⦌ (Batajnica: Sprint 2011), 209-210.
[22 Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 370, f. 19; Popović, Jevreji u Srbiji, 44.
[23 Dr Fridrich Pops took part in WWI and was decorated. Gaon, Znameniti Jevreji Srbije, 186-187.
[24 According to Nebojša Popović, one of the major tasks of B’nei Brit lodge was to reduce antagonisms between the Ashkenazi and Sephardic communities. Popović, Jevreji u Srbiji, 84.
[25 Berlin Congress – held from 13. 06 to 13. 07. 1878. – was the most important political event for the Jews in the Modern History of Serbia, because only then – and after the strong political pressure from Alliance Israelite Universelle that demanded guarantees that the Jews would be granted full citizenship rights – the Jewish question was solved. Ibid, 19.
[26 Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 366; More than 70% of Jews were employed in the non-productive area which is huge deviation in comparison to the rest of society where only 10% was in this sector. Popović, Jevreji u Srbiji, 35.
[27 Priča o komšijama kojih više nema, exhibition catalogue, ⦋The tale of the neighbors that are no more⦌ (Beograd:B92 1997), 20.
[28 Between the two wars Jews took part in the public life of Belgrade and Serbia, and were represented in the Parliament. They didn’t have their own party but were members of various Serbian parties like Radical Party: Šemaja Demajo – vice president of Belgrade Municipality in 1923, dr Jakov Čelebonović, dr David Albala, Solomon Azriel, Šalom Ruso; Many Jews were in the Democrat Party too, like Rafailo Finci, Solomon Alkalaj, dr Bukić Pijade and dr Fridrih Pops. Compared to the general society, Jews were three times more numerous in the Communist Party. Its most famous members being Moša Pijade, Bihalji brothers and Baruh family. Popović, Jevreji u Srbiji, 95.
[29 Twelve major mills in Serbia were owned by Jews. Ibid., 108.
[30 There were five Jewish banks. Ibid., 111-115.
[31 Apart from “Hevra Kadisha“ and “Hased shel Emet“, organizations that took care of dead and burials, there were two women societies: “Jewish Women Society“ (1874) and “Benefactor“ (1896), “Oneg Shabat Gemilut Hasidim“ for elder people, “Bikur Holim“,“Arie Air“,“Šemaja Demajo“ for supporting poor and Academician Society “Potpora” for supporting students in Serbia and abroad, “Serbian Jewish Choral Society“ (that was the hub of cultural life prior to WWI) and “Jewish Library“ which served as a specific Jewish Open University. Ibid., 47-56.
[32 Gaon, Znameniti Jevreji Srbije, 257, (Aleksa), 258 (Marko).
[33 Ibid., 118-119.
[34 Velimir Starčević, Knjiga o Geci Konu ⦋Book about Geca Kon⦌, (Beograd: Admiral Books 2009).
[35 Gaon, Znameniti Jevreji Srbije, 56-57.
[36 Ibid., 170-171.
[37 Ibid., 81-82.
[38 Ibid., 73.
[40 Bojana Ibrajter Gazibara, Robni magazin ⦋Department store⦌, (Beograd: Zavod za zaštitu kulture grada Beograda, 2011.)
[42 The story is based on the private archive of Joel Fisher, Holon, Israel. In 1966. „Soko“bakery will become the famous Belgrade chocolate, candy and biscuits factory “Soko- Nada Štark.”
[43 Blam, Jazz u Srbiji, 21.
[44 David Tajtacak, „Beogradski Jevreji i njihova zanimanja (od kraja 19. Veka do II svetskog rata) ⦋Jews of Belgrade and their occupations – from the end of 19th Century till the WWII⦌,“ Jevrejski pregled, avgust/septembar 2016, 14.
[45 One of the most famous examples is the Aaron Levi’s house in Kralja Petra 39, and (today non existing ) Žak Buli’s House in 56 constructed by Stojan Titelbah.
[46 According to Jovanka Veselinović’s research, number of Jews living in Kralja Petra Street in spring of 1941 was more than 30 families and the number of Jewish shops in this very street was even bigger. Jovanka Veselinović, „Spisak Jevreja i supružnika Jevreja koji su, prema naredbi vojnog zapovednika u Srbiji od 30. Maja 1941. podneli opštini grada Beograda prijave o imovini“ ⦋The list of Jews and their spouses who submitted accounts of their material assets⦌, Zbornik JIM 6, (1992): 375-406.
[47 In 1921. 23% of all Jewish population lived in Dorćol municipality, 10% in the city center, 7 % in Vračar municipality, 6,5 in Palilula, 5% in Savamala and Terazije. Frajdenrajh, “Jevreji Beograda,“ 366.
[48 Radivoje Davidović, Jevrejska čitaonica ⦋The Jewish library⦌, (Beograd: Čigoja 2016).
[49 Cf. f.31.
[50 Haim S. Davičo, Priče sa Jalije ⦋Stories from Jalija⦌, (Beograd:Standard 2, 2000).
[51 Mildar was also the school building where – in 1862. – the whole community found the shelter and miraculously survived the bombing of the city. This event is well-known as Belgrade Purim.
[52 The name of the building was Oneg Shabbat, Gemilut Hasidim that means – Oneg Shabbat – Honouring the Sabbath the day of rest. The Society’s main aim was to keep the memory of the deceased. Gemilut Hasidim was an association of pious Jews which had, as its main objective, assistance to the poor and old Jews. That’s why one can find inscriptions in Hebrew and Cyrillic, mentioning the name of the Society as well as the quotation from the Psalm 71: “Do not reject me in my old age; do not forsake me when my strength has abandoned me”, above the entrance to the building.
[53 Jelena Filipović, Ivana Vučina-Simović, „Philanthropy and Emancipation among Sephardic women in the Balkans in times of Modernity”,
Journal of Sephardic Studies, vol. 1: 78-95. http://www.sefarad-studies.org
[54 Popović, Jevreji u Srbiji, 48-49.
[55 In June 1941. there were sixty six doctors, twenty four medicine students, six pharmacist and twenty six nurses working in this hospital.
Olga Manojlović Pintar (et al.), Mesta stradanja i antifašitičke borbe u Beogradu 1941-44, (Beograd: Pekograf 2013), 94-98.